Fatigue refers to the inability of the body to operate at a certain level and the inability of various organs to maintain a fixed working capacity. That is, the muscles cannot maintain strength due to excessive activity, resulting in decreased activity and premature aging—changes in blood biochemical values of Saimei in mice with anti-fatigue and anti-aging effects.
The study targets are as follows:
1. To examine the effect of Generic Saimei on the strengthening of exercise tolerance in mice (Experiments 1-2)
We are using ICR mice as an experimental tool to study the improvement of muscle endurance by Muscle Up (Genemax), to analyze the ability of mice to swim after 15 days and 30 days of feeding and to analyze the changes of lactate and lactate dehydrogenase.
2. Examining the safety of Muscle Up (Genemax) on mice (Experiment 3)
After one month of continuous feeding of Muscle Up(Genemax), various blood biochemical values, liver index, and urea nitrogen were detected in mice to evaluate the safety of Muscle Up (Genemax).
3. Examining the efficacy of Genesys on aging indicators in aged mice (Experiment 4)
We found differences in blood biochemical values of the 12 months old mice after four months of continuous feeding Muscle Up (Genemax).
Experimental Results & Discussions
Feeding different doses of Muscle Up (Effect on the exercise ability of mice) The primary purpose of this experiment is to observe the evaluation of the exercise ability of mice after feeding Muscle Up.
From Figure 1a, we observed that the exercise capacity of mice in the control group that was not fed Muscle Up could only maintain for 27.7 minutes. Those fed with low-dose Muscle Up (LD) improved to 57.3 minutes, a total twofold increase. As much as it is, the feeding of a high dose of Muscle Up (HD) improves the exercise ability of mice so that they can swim in water for 90.1 minutes, which is 3.25 times that of the control group and is also better than that of the low dose group, it was as much as 1.5. times higher. So we can confirm that Muscle Up has an increasing effect on the exercise capacity of mice with increasing concentration.
Figure 1a. The effect of 15-day feeding on the swimming ability of ICR mice (n=7). Muslce Up was not fed to the control group, the LD group was fed a daily low-dose of Muscle Up, and the HD group was fed a high-dose of Muscle Up.
In order to further understand the effect of Muscle Up, we extended the feeding period of Muscle UP to 30 days. We then observed whether the mice fed with Muscle Up for an extended period could enhance their athletic ability. Figure 1b shows that after a long period (30 days), the exercise capacity of the mice fed with Muscle Up was enhanced by 1.3 times. For the high-dose group (HD), there is a more prominent effect, an increase of 1.7 times, and the effect is more significant compared to the low-dose group. It is worth noticing that one mice from the HD group can sustainably swim for nearly 5 hours (290 minutes). This result implies that long-term feeding with high Dosages of Muscle may bring the most excellent effect on improving athletic performance.
Fig. 1b compares the effects of feeding Muscle Up for 15 and 30 days on the swimming ability of ICR mice (n=7). The control group was not fed Muscle Up, the LD group was fed a daily low-dose of Muscle Up, and the HD group was fed a daily high-dose of Muscle Up.
The effect of feeding different doses of Muscle Up on the accumulation of lactic acid in mice
The main reason for fatigue during exercise is the accumulation of lactic acid. When exercising, people will first perform aerobic respiration. This breathing mode can obtain energy so the muscles can continue to exercise without fatigue, and the exercise time is prolonged. When the exercise intensity increases, aerobic respiration will not be enough to support, so the muscles will start anaerobic respiration to obtain more energy. However, at the same time, by-produced lactic acid will also start to accumulate, causing muscle soreness, so how to reduce The accumulation of lactic acid is the focus of this experimental observation.
According to the data in Figure 2a, we can find that the concentration of lactic acid in the blood has a significant downward trend with the increase in the dose of Muscle Up. The lactate value in the high-dose group decreased from 57.8 to 38.7, an overall decrease of 33%; there is a statistically significant difference. In other words, the reduced accumulation of lactic acid can effectively ease muscle fatigue and prolong exercise time.
Fig. 2a. The effect of Generic Selmet on the accumulation of lactate in the serum of ICR mice after 15 days of feeding (n=7). The control group was not fed Muscle Up, the LD group was fed a daily low dose of Muscle Up, and the HD group was fed a daily high dose of Muscle Up. (*represents p < 0.05 compared to the Control group)
We also compared the changes in lactate values of mice fed for 15 and 30 days (Fig. 2b) and found that in the low-dose group, the degree of decrease in lactate values in the low-dose group fed for a long time (about 11% more). In the high-dose group, the result was similar, probably because the potency of Muscle Up had reached its maximum effect.
Fig. 2b. comparison of the effects of feeding Muscle Up on the accumulation of lactate in the serum of ICR mice for 15 and 30 days (n=7). The control group was not fed Muscle Up, the LD group was fed a daily low dose of Muscle Up, and the HD group was fed a daily high dose of Muscle Up. (# represents p < 0.05 on the 15th compared with the Control group), (* represents p < 0.05 on the 15th compared with the Control group)
The safety of feeding different doses of Muscle Up on mice
In addition to observing the athletic ability of mice, we also collected blood from the heart of the mice to test some related biochemical values. From Table 1, we can observe that after 30 days of feeding, we detected urea nitrogen content (BUN). The formation of urea nitrogen is mainly the final product of protein metabolism after strenuous exercise; the energy balance in the muscle collapses after a long-term exercise. ATP cannot be rapidly resynthesised; The generated AMP is easily deaminated in the muscle to form IMP, causing an increase in blood ammonia to accumulate synthetic urea in the liver.
The blood urea nitrogen is relative to the amount of exercise and the condition of recovery, and it is one of the indicators for evaluating fatigue and muscle endurance. The results show that both high and low doses of Muscle Up can effectively reduce the blood urea nitrogen, indicating that the recovery ability of mice is enhanced, in line with the previous experimental results showing that Muscle Up can enhance the athletic ability of mice. Finally, we measured the liver function index (GOT and GPT), and it found that Muscle Up did not affect the function of the liver.
Table 1. Effect of Muscle Up on metabolic parameters of mice (30 days)
Values are mean ± S.E.M (n = 7) ; LD: low dose; HD: high dose, *P < 0.05 compared with control group
Blood urea nitrogen is one of the indicators for evaluating fatigue. In this experiment, we can observe that Muscle Up can effectively reduce urea nitrogen's density so that muscles' endurance is enhanced and fatigue is less likely to occur. On the mice of long-period Muscle Up feeding, the amount of urea nitrogen decreased by 6%. That is to say, long-term use of high-dose Muscle Up enhances athletic ability, reduces fatigue, and prolongs exercise time. In addition, the data on urea nitrogen also shows that Muscle Up does not harm kidneys. Summarising all of the above, it is affirmative that long-term feeding of Muscle Up increases muscle endurance in mice without causing harm to the liver and kidneys.
Fig.3 Comparison of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in the serum of ICR mice fed Muscle Up for 15 and 30 days (n=7). The control group was not fed Muscle Up, the LD group was fed a daily low dose of Muscle Up, and the HD group was fed a daily high dose of Muscle Up. (# represents p < 0.05 on the 15 days group compared with the control group), (* represents p < 0.05 on the 15 days group compared with the control group)
The effect of Muscle Up on aging mice
According to the "Draft Amendment of "Efficacy Assessment Method of Health Food for "Aeging Resistance" issued by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (Taiwan), we selected 12-month-old mice as the experimental animals for the aeging model, fed them continuously for 4 months, and then measured and compared the aeging bioactivity indicators of the test group and control group. After four months of feeding and continuous monitoring of the weight changes of the mice (Fig. 4a), it was found that the weight of the mice fed Muscle Up showed a stable trend, while the control group showed a downward trend. Besides, in the third month, the two groups had a statistically significant difference in body weight. Furthermore, we observed that the activity of the mice fed Muscle Up was significantly more active than that of the control group; further experiments need to be conducted to affirm this phenomenon.
Fig. 4a. The effect of 4 months of feeding with Muscle Up on the body weight of aged mice (n=7). The control group was not fed Muscle Up, and the LD group was fed a daily low dose of Muscle Up; (p < 0.05 * represents the comparison with the Control group).
The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) of the mice was significantly decreased (12%) after feeding Muscle Up, indicating that the muscles of ageing mice were less prone to fatigue during exercise; in terms of liver function, although GPT did not change, GOT did. A significant decrease, from 302 IU/L to 162 IU/L, is a 46% decrease, which is very helpful for restoring liver function. According to the Ministry of Health and Welfare (Taiwan), the serum parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and blood calcium levels in the elderly over 71 years old are significantly higher than in adults aged 21-50. The density of blood calcium and the value of blood calcium will increase through ageing.
This experiment finds that the blood calcium of the mice fed with Muscle Up significantly decreased (16%), indicating that the deterioration from ageing has improved. Nevertheless, does the decreased blood calcium backflow into the bone or not? It needs to analyse the bone density or weight of the mice to confirm further.
Table 2. Effect of Muscle Up on old parameters of ageing mice
Another surprising discovery during the experiment was that most of the mice in the control group on the left of Figure 5b had hair shedding due to aging. However, after 4 months of Muscle Up feeding, the hair grows back unexpectedly; We need more studies to clarify the mechanism and reason.
Fig.4b, photo of the hair of mice